Canada

Canada has 125 public and private higher education institutions. The main kinds are liberal arts institutions, public universities and private (not-for-profit and for-profit) universities. The difference among these is that public universities receive some funding from territorial, provincial or the federal government whereas private institutions do not. Among these, the University of Toronto was ranked 18th worldwide in 2019 by the Times Higher Education and McGill University was 42nd, thus putting two Canadian universities in the top 50 higher education institutions worldwide. Canada is also a welcoming space for international students as it is home to approximately 500,000 international students in its universities, which accounts for a third of the higher education student body. For more information on Canadian universities, please refer to the official government website at https://www.educanada.ca/index.aspx?lang=eng


Educational Structure
Canada follows the traditional pathway of higher education study from offering a Bachelor’s degree, followed by a Master’s degree and then a Doctorate. An undergraduate degree usually lasts four years, followed by a two-year Master’s and a three-year Doctorate. Medical degrees are usually applied to as a Master’s when the student has a Bachelor’s degree in the relevant sciences, such as biology, to apply with rather than directly entering medicine at the undergraduate level. Moreover, students who apply and must take the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) as well attend an interview. 

In order to apply to Canada, students must do so directly via the institution. However, requirements and application vary widely across territories and provinces within Canada. Local students will have the secondary school requirements fulfilled; however, international students must make sure that they apply to a university on the designated learning institutes list in order to be able to obtain a student permit to study in Canada. Canadian institutions accept a wide range of degrees from the French Baccalaureate, to the International Baccalaureate and A levels, however this varies from institution to institution. Applications cost between 78$ to 200$ each. 


Fees
Tuition fees for postgraduate international students are approximately 12’300$. However, for executive MBA programs, these generally cost 37’000$ whereas normal MBA programs cost 22’900$ on average. International students pay twice as much as Canadian students do for tuition. A statistics table for all university tuition for local and international students can be found at this link https://www.univcan.ca/universities/facts-and-stats/tuition-fees-by-university/


Information for International Students
To be eligible to study in Canada, in addition to meeting the university requirements and applying to a valid university for a study permit for international students, the applicants must also take an IELTS or a TEF exam to prove their English or French proficiency depending on the language of the course as Canada is a bilingual country. Moreover, students must be able to prove how they will be able to fund their studies in order to receive a permit and to apply to the universities. Living costs in Canada are approximately 7’500$ per year or 8’250$ for Quebec in addition to the tuition costs. Typically, renting a one bedroom flat in Canada costs between 440£-550$ per month. Inexpensive meals cost around 7£, a loaf of bread costs 1.44£ and a one-way local transport ticket cost 1.60£.


Links: 
https://www.bachelorsportal.com/articles/2499/how-to-study-work-and-live-in-canada-the-complete-bachelors-students-guide-2020.html
https://www.universityguideonline.org/en/InternationalPathways/types-of-institutions-in-canada
https://www.timeshighereducation.com/world-university-rankings/2020/world-ranking#!/page/1/length/25/sort_by/rank/sort_order/asc/cols/stats
https://www.educanada.ca/why-canada-pourquoi/index.aspx?lang=eng
https://www.topuniversities.com/where-to-study/north-america/canada/graduate-study-canada-guide-international-students
https://students-residents.aamc.org/applying-medical-school/taking-mcat-exam/prepare-mcat-exam/
https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/study-canada/study-permit/prepare/designated-learning-institutions-list.html
https://www.studyinternational.com/news/step-step-get-canadian-university-international-student/
https://www.thecompleteuniversityguide.co.uk/international/north-america/canada
https://www.topuniversities.com/where-to-study/north-america/canada/graduate-study-canada-guide-international-students