Czechia

There are three types of tertiary education institutions: Public, state and private (and religious in case of the ‘Higher professional’ category)
These are separated into University (offering all three levels of the B-M-D), Non-university (offering mostly Bachelor and Master degrees) and Higher-professional categories.
Condition of admission is completion of high school education with ‘Maturita exam’ or its equivalent.

Tertiary education respects the European B-M-D framework for tertiary eduation:
Bachelor usually takes up 3 to 4 years, Master usually takes 1 to 3 years, PhD varies across degrees (usually 3-4 years).
Title awarded upon completion of a technical master’s degrees is ‘Engineer’ (Ing.); for other master’s the title is ‘Master’ (Mgr.) or ‘Master of Arts’ (M.A.); ‘JUDr.’ stands for a law doctorate, ‘MUDr.’ stands for a medicine doctorate.
Some of the degrees can be studied as Integrated Master over five years (namely Medicine and related disciplines, Law, Architecture, etc).

Tertiary education in the Czech Republic is free of charge for Czech and EU citizens; fees for international students vary.

Admission procedures usually vary for each individual institution separately.
It usually entails an admission test sat in person at the given university
For many degrees however, there is a standardised admission test, administered by private organisation SCIO s.r.o. (https://www.scio.cz/english/)
People may apply to several degree programmes at different or even the same institutions.
Most of the university module examinations take form of an oral exam
The studies are concluded by a state exam (usually also takes oral form). 
Consists of two parts: a common (state) exam and a profiling (specific for individual schools) exam.
A dissertation is also a part of one’s successful completion of most studies.
Main tuition language is Czech, however there are plenty of courses offered in English or even German, French, Russian, etc.
Most universities adhere to the European Credit Transfer System and offer Erasmus+ opportunities.
Hierarchical system of academic organisation; clear organisational structure.
Academic Senates, however – comprised of student-elected representatives – are usually a part of the organisational structure and exercise great influence over the inner workings of the institution (even by partaking in election of Dean and Provost).


 

 

Sources:
https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/higher-education-21_cs
https://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vzd%C4%9Bl%C3%A1v%C3%A1n%C3%AD_v_%C4%8Cesku#Terci%C3%A1rn%C3%AD_vzd%C4%9Bl%C3%A1v%C3%A1n%C3%AD
https://www.studyin.cz/plan-your-studies/higher-education-system/
https://www.euroeducation.net/prof/czechco.htm
https://www.educationcenter.cz/en/why/
https://www.mzv.cz/washington/en/culture_events/education/education_system_in_the_czech_republic/index.html