Education in Turkey is governed by a national system which was established in accordance with the Atatürk Reforms after the Turkish War of Independence (1921-1923). According to the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, everyone has the right to receive education. In Turkey there are 207 (125 public, 80 private and 2 military) higher education institutions, 11 of them located in North Cyprus. Turkish education system is under the supervision and control of the state, namely the Ministry of National Education (MEB). The higher education system in Turkey is supervised by the Council of Higher Education (YÖK https://www.yok.gov.tr/en). The YOK is an autonomous institution which is responsible for the planning, coordination and governance of higher education system in Turkey in accordance with the Turkish Constitution and the Higher Education Laws. Turkey has 34 universities in the overall Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2020. There are 154505 international students ranged through a lot of cities in Turkey what accounts ~1% of total in the higher education system.
Universities decide upon their own academic calendars; however, academic year generally starts in September and ends in June. There are winter and summer breaks. Summer school is also available at some universities. Turkish universities offer: Associate's degree programs (ön lisans) Bachelor's degree (lisans) programs, Graduate programs (Yüksek lisans), Post-graduate programs (Doktora). Although in the universities, the instruction is generally in Turkish some programs can be fully or partly in English in these circumstances before starting to program English proficiency will be required if you do not holding this one year of English preparatory is provided by the university. Most of the private universities use English as instruction language. Some universities use, French and German as the language of instruction with one preparatory year if necessary.
After the high school, the graduates enter a two-stage examination system known as YKS (Higher Education Institutions Examination). This nation-wide centralized examinations are administrated by the Student Selection and Placement Center (ÖSYM) every year, which determines candidates for the enrollment of each university and faculty after evaluating the grades of related subjects, their high school average results and their preferences according to the student capacity of each faculty. Those with good grades are qualified for the four-year undergraduate programmes and at the end they can get a Bachelor's Degree (BA). Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine courses last for five years and Medicine for six years. After a four-year faculty, one can go further for their Master's Degree which lasts for two years with thesis and non-thesis options. Access to doctoral programs mostly requires a Master's degree and have a duration of 3-6 years with a doctoral thesis at the end. The graduates of Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Dentistry can directly apply to PhD/Doctorate programmes. There might be some other requirements specific to programs for graduate and post-graduate admissions checking the admissions separately beforehand is advised. Foreign students must take the Graduate Education Entrance Examination or an international examination (GRE, GMAT, SAT, etc.) required by each university, the equivalency of which is recognized by the concerning university senate. The evaluation of the results of these examinations is carried out by the concerning universities.
Education is free in public universities whereas tuition fees vary 5000-20000 $ in private universities depends on the programs.
Information for International Students
Foreign students who would like to enroll in the post-graduate programs of the Turkish institutions of higher education can apply directly to universities and must have completed their secondary education in a high school in which the education is equivalent to that of a Turkish lycee; they need to have it confirmed from a Turkish Embassy in their country and apply for a student visa. The applications of foreign students will be considered by the universities within their limit of the allocated places for foreigners. The students must also take the Foreign Student Entrance Examination (YÖS) which consists of two tests; a "basic learning skills test" where they must score at least 40, and a "Turkish language proficiency test" to see their Turkish language level, if any. Language courses are organized for those who do not speak Turkish.
Turkey is hosting many activities in terms of social and cultural life. International and national movie, music, art and fashion festivals are organizations and events which are curiously followed and create tremendous impression all around the world. General Health Insurance has the equal cover for all international students issued by the government of Turkish Republic. Students with General Health Insurance could receive service and medical treatment in private hospitals by paying a small amount of difference in price.